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SAVIO/BOSCO 82-88

Fellow Bosco's, here is a linking point for all the members of the class of Awka Diocesan Junior Seminarians tagged Domininc/Bosco 82-88. This blog is specifically for members of the class alone. And it will continue to host every member with their contents which include contacts, profiles, career, hobbies, festivities etc. To do this, simply mail us via richploughman@yahoo.com and or inform us with the number 09092682049.

Here are the contacts of some of the members:
08034475524 - Ekegbo Richard (Rev. Fr.)
08038394495 - Azolibe Christopher (Rev. Fr.)
08037587320 - Ogwatta Damian

Igbo/English: CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS (I)

Igbo/English: CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS (I)
-Martha Iloh E.
The study of language encompasses many spheres of life. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. In linguistics, there are so many levels and branches. These branches and levels have areas of concentration of which one is contrastive analysis.
Contrastive analysis is an area of linguistics that contrasts between a pair of language or pairs of languages. In contrasting of languages, any level or system of language is taken.
In this study, the concentration of this study is on parts of speech or word class called ‘quantifiers’.

LANGUAGE
Language is specie-specific. It is the sole right of humans to use language and it is the only characteristics that distinguish humans from other mammals/animals. Language is a symbolic system based on pure or arbitrary convention ... infinitely extendable and modifiable according to changing needs and conditions of the speaker. Robins (1985). For Robins, every language is a symbol system that is either written or spoken which must have a system, and this system is arbitrary which means that there is no direct relationship between the signifier and the signified. Example the word ‘dog’ is a name of a domestic animal in English but has the following names in other languages; ‘nkita’ in Igbo language, ‘Chien’ in French, ‘pepeye’ in Yoruba language. These names have no direct relationship with the animal they represent for if they do, there should be the same name for it in all languages. He went further to say that this arbitrariness in language must be conventional. Conventionality of language means that the language used must be a system of codes acceptable to the users of the language. He equally agrees that these conventional symbols must be extendable and modifiable.
For communication to be effective, there are word classes/parts of speech that have to come together to make up words, phrases, clauses and sentences.
Some parts of speech include;
(i) . Noun
(ii) Verb
(iii). Adjective
(iv). Adverb
(v) . Pronouns
(vi). Conjunction
(vii). Preposition
(viii). Determiners (quantifiers)

All parts of speech are important but our concern in this research is on ‘quantifiers’ of Igbo and English languages. The contrastive analysis of Igbo and English quantifiers.

QUANTIFIERS
Quantifiers are words or phrases which are used before a noun to indicate an amount or quantity. Examples are: some, many, a lot, a little of, a glass of, etc

CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS/CONTRASTIVE STUDIES/CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS
Concept
The theoretical foundation for what became known as contrastive analysis hypothesis was formulation in Lado’s ‘linguistic across culture’ (1957). In his book, Lado claimed that, ‘those elements which are similar to the (learner’s) native languages will be simple for him and elements that are different will be difficult for him’
While this was not a novel suggestion, Lado was the first to provide a comprehensive theoretical treatment and to suggest a systematic set of technical procedures for the contrastive study of languages. This involves describing the language (using structuralist linguistics), comparing them and predicting learning difficulties.
Chatcher (1974) defines Contrastive Analysis (C.A) ‘’as a more detailed, point to point analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic and other subsystems of language.
According to Henry Sweet, C.A. is used to show the relationship between native language (L1) and the foreign language (L2) or between languages being contrasted. The reason for this is to bring out the areas of similarities and differences in order to aid language teaching and learning.
Major Assumptions of C. A.
1. Interference:
C.A believes that the major problem in language learning is mother tongue interference and this justifies the looking into the structures of the language to be contrasted to bring out the areas of similarities and differences because it is the major believe of C.A., that the areas of similarities will not pose a challenge to the learner but the areas of differences will pose a challenge to the learner. This will lead to interference and transfer from the mother tongue to the foreign language.
2 C.A. is behaviouristic in nature: it believes that learners exhibit the same behaviour in learning of language and therefore will transfer forms, meanings and habits from L1 into L2
3. C.A. is predictive in nature: it does not describe rather it prescribes
4. C.A. is linguistic apriori: it is conducted before teaching and learning begins etc.

Criticism/shortfalls of C.A.
1. C.A. does not recognise language, aptitude and attitude of a learner as a problem in language learning.
2. C.A. does not consider the method of presentation of the target language as a major challenge, i.e. lack of methodology, absence of effective measurement etc.

Benefits of C.A.
1. It aids language teaching and learning.
It helps in preparation of teaching and learning materials
It helps in preparation of school and language curriculum
It helps in preparation of audio lingual method

2. C.A. helps to highlight variations in languages and dialects
3. it helps in developing orthography (conventional writing system of a language)
4. it helps in machine translation: the knowledge of two or more languages will aid in developing the
software that will aid in translation.

IGBO AND ENGLISH ARTICLES

Ụtọasụsụ na iwu so ya
Chịkọdịlị Egbuji
Ụtọasụsụ malitere mgbe ochie (utoasusu ochie). Ndị gboo chere na ọ bụ naanị asụsụ ederede nwere ụtọasụsụ. Ha chekwara na ọ nwere asụsụ ndị dị mma nwee ndị adịghị mma.
N’ụtọasụsụ ochie, ọ nwere ndị nyeere aka na nkwalite na nwube ụtọasụsụ; mmadụ dị ka Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Dionysius Thrax, na ndị ọzọ. Ụtọasụsụ ochie n’agbanyeghị na ọ bụ nke ochie, ọ bụ na ntule ya ka ụtọasụsụ taa hiwere isi. Ọ bụ ezie na o nwere ihe ụfọdụ dị iche n’ụzọ ochie na ụzọ ọhụrụ, mana anyị ga- amata na ọtụtụ mkpụrụokwu e nwere n’ụtọasụsụ ugbua bụ na nke ochie ka ha siri bịa.
Ụtọasụsụ ochie nwere mperi dị iche iche o riri dịka o si wee nwekwaa uru ọ baara anyị taa. Ọ bụ site n’iri mperi ha ka Chomsky ji wee webata Grama Ndọkọ Nkebiokwu (PGG) na Grama Mgbanwe (TGG).
N’ileba anya na Grama Mgbanwe(TGG), e nwere iwu ndị dị na ya; dịka iwu nke mwepu, nke ntinye, nke mgbanwe ọnọdụ , na nke ntinwe.

TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR
Traditional grammar is the speculative work of the medieval and the prescriptive approach of the 18th century grammarians. Basically it refers back to the Aristotelian orientations towards the nature of language as it is shown in the work of the ancient Greeks and Romans. There are ideas about sentence structure deriving from –Aristotle and Plato ideas about the parts of speech deriving from the socio-grammarians.
This type of grammar was initially based on European languages, particularly on Latin and Greeks. It is widely used in language teaching, thus termed pedagogic grammar.
In analyzing sentences, the method adopted is parsing. This generally involves five aspects:
1. identifying elements of the sentence, labeling the parts as subject, predicate, attribute, adverbial, etc.
2. Identifying parts of speech of each word;
3. Pointing out the inflection of the words;
4. Describing the relationship between the words;
5. Generalizing the order of words.
Fundamentally, this approach to the analysis of sentence structure is notional in nature. It classifies words and parts of sentences mainly according to meaning.

NTUNYE NKE PLATO, ARISTOTLE, NA DIONYSIUS THRAX N’ỤTỌASỤSỤ OCHIE
PLATO:
Ọkpụrụkpụ ihe Plato tunyere na ụtọasụsụ ochie bụ inye ndiiche n’etiti ngwaa na mkpọaha (verbs and nouns).
Onoma – aha (noun)
Rhema – ngwaa (verb)
Onoma na Rhema bụ ihe ndị mebere ahịrịokwu (sentence). Onoma nwere ike ịbụ ahịrịokwu na aha. Rhema nwere ike ịbụ ngwaa nakwa nkọwa. Mana Plato akpọghị ya nkọwa. Dika o kwuru, ihe jikọrọ Onoma na Rhema bu mpụtara ha (meaning).
ARISTOTLE:
Aristotle tinyere ndịiche dị n’aha (noun) na ngwaa (verb), mana o tinyekwara ihe a na- akpọ Syndesmoi. Ha bụ okwu ndị na- ejikọ ihe ọnụ. Aristotle tinyere okwu ndị ahụ abụghị aha ma ọ bụ ngwaa n’ime Syndesmoi. Ọ chọpụtara na e nwere tensị karịrị out n’ime ngwaa, nke ndịnaazụ (past actions) na tensị ndịugbua (present actions). E nwere nkwenye ma ọ bụ n’etiti omume (actions) na tensị ndị ahụ.
DIONYSIUS THRAX
Dionysius kwuru na grama bụ amamiihe tara akpụ (technical knowledge) nke asụsụ, nke ndị ode abụ (poets) na ndị ode akwụkwọ (writers) tinyere. Ntunye nke Dionysius Thrax bụ na ọ wepụtara akụkụ asụsụ anọ tinyere na anọ ndị a; nkwuwa (adverb), omekangwaa (participle), nnọchiaha (pronoun), na mbuụzọ (preposition).

Mperi nke Ụtọasụsụ ochie (shortcomings of traditional grammar)
a) Grama ochie nwere usoro na iwu na-achị ya (normative), ma kwuo etu a ga na-eme asụsụ (prescriptive), kama ọ ga-akọwa etu e si eji ya eme ihe (descriptive), nakwa ịkọwa nke ọma etu e si were asụsụ mee ihe (explicit). Dịka Frank Palmer kwuru; “ọtụtụ iwu nke grama enweghị ezigbo nkwado. O nweghị ihe bara uru n’ikwutọ ndehie nke ha wepụtara. Ihe dị mma na ihe adịghị mma bụ isi, naanị ihe dị mkpa bụ ihe ọhaneze nabatara”. Ha na-ekwu na asụsụ kwesịrị ịdị etu a ma ọ bụ otu a.
b) Ha akọwaghị etu njikọokwu si akpa agwa n’asụsụ. Nkọwa ha nyere nkejiasụsụ edochaghị anya.
c) Ha kere ahịrịokwu naanị ụzọ abụọ;
Onoma na Rhema (Latin)
Isiahịrị na mmeju (Igbo)
d) Ha kọwara ngwaa dịka ihe omume, kedụzi maka “dị”, “bụ”?
e) Grama ochie chere na o nwere ndị ka ibe ya mma, dịka Griiki, Frenchị, na Latịn. Ha kwere na asụsụ ndị a dị mma ma zue oke.
f) Grama ochie kọwara na asụsụ ederede ka mma karịa nke e kwuru n’ọnụ. Ha n’elebakarị anya n’asụsụ e dere ede wee chefuo na nke e kwuru n’ọnụ ka yam ma. N’otu aka ahụ, o kwuchaghị ihe niile banyere asụsụ e dere ede, kama ọ gbadoro ụkwụ n’ihe ndị dị mkpa na ya.
g) O nweghị ike ikewapụta ma ọ bụ nye ndịiche dị n’etiti ngalaba asụsụ (linguistic level) e nwere dịka: fọnetiks(ụdaasụsụ), mọfọlọji(mmebe okwu), sintaksị(mmebe ahịrịokwu), na semantics(nghọta).

ASỤSỤ IGBO ABỤRỤLA IWU NA JSS NA WAEC -Gọọmenti!

Ka ọ dị ndị hụrụ asụsụ ala Igbo na omenala n’anya ka ha wụliwe elu ka ele n’ihi ihe ịrịbaama nke mere ya bụ asụsụ site n’aka ndị ụlọ ọgbakọ nke Steeti Anambra, ka obi jụrụ ha oyi, ma loo ha mmiri, ka ọ dị ụmụakwụkwọ na ndị niile anabughi ele asụsụ Igbo anya ka ihe. N’ihi ya, ndị niile hụrụ asụsụ na omenala Igbo n’anya, ma na-akwalite ya, ga na-ele anya ịhụ ka ndị a ejighi ezi obi na ihu ọchị nabata ya ga-esi lụsa iwu a ọgụ. Ma ka o si dị, ịgbagha ihe iwu kwuru n’ụzọ ọ bụla enweghi isi, makana ihu dị mma adịghị mma ịtụ mbọ.

Ebe ọtaarụ nwere ike ịgagharị oge ọ bụla, onye nzọpụta nwekwara ike isi ebe ọ bụla pụta oge ọ bụla. Ya mere na ekele m na-ebunye ndị ụlọ omewe iwu juru abọ ebe m na-eche na ọnụ agaghị ekwuputali obi ụtọ ndị nabatara ụdị ihe ọma ahụ mere asụsụ Igbo na omenala n’ụbọchị ọnwa Eprel 2010 dị na iri atọ. Ihe ọma ndị a dịka akụkọ ụwa siri kọwa ya gụnyere na:

a. Ọ ga-abụrịrị iwu na nwata akwụkwọ Igbo ọ bụla na Steeti Anambra ga-alaferiri n’ule asụsụ Igbo (tinyere Asụsụ Bekee na Mgbakọ na mwepu), na WAEC sekọndrị nke nta tupu o nwee ike ịbanye sekọndrị nke ukwu (Senior Secondary).

b. Ụbọchị Friday ọ bụla buzi nke a ga na-ahụta ka ụbọchị nke ndị Igbo, nke mpụtara ya bụ na onye ọ bụla n’ụlọ ọrụ gọọment Steeti (ọ bụghị naanị n’ụlọ ndị Omewe Iwu), ga na-eke ekike Igbo, na-asụ Igbo, na-eche echiche ka ezigbo ụmụafọ Igbo.

Atumatu ndị a bụ ezigbo mmapụ ụkwụ, ọ kachasị ebe ha si n’ogo kwesiri ekwesi, ma dị n’ụdị iwu. Ọ bụ eziokwu na a sịghị sị ekpochila inyi ma ozu ejughi ya, ma e nwere ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ ndị mmadụ lere, ma ka na-ele anya na ndị ọchịchị ga-emeriri asụsụ na omenala Igbo iji gosi na ha hụrụ ya n’anya n’ezie. Ọ bụrụ n’ụdị ito nwanyị akịdị, ka o were gbata ọzọ, etoola m gọọment, ma na-etoriri ya maka ndị o mere eme. Mana ana m eche na dịka ụfọdụ n’ihe ndị dị mkpa o kwesiri ime gunyere na, gọọment steeti kwesiriri iweputa ezigbo ụlọ a ga na-edowe iheọkpụ (museum), ebe a ga na-echekwawa ihe ochie niile, ihe ndị dị adị ugbua na nke ga-emechaarị dị n’ihe niile e nwere, maọbụ e nweburu n’ala Igbo, maka ọ dị mma nke ndị agbaọhụrụ. Iji ma atụ, ọ bụrụ na e gosighi nwata dị ihe dị ka afọ iri ihe dị iche na udu mmiri na ite mmiri, o nwere ike ịghọta nne awọ ka ogidi okwute, etu ụfọdụ ndị na-amalite ịbụ okenye si na-ajụ ugbua, kedu ka ego ayọrọ na-adị?

Ọzọ, gọọment kwesiri iweputa ụlọ (office), ebe a ga na-enwe akwụkwọ Igbo dị iche iche e derela ede, ebe a ga-ewe ka ebe a ga na-ajụta, na-achọpụta, ma na-eme ntụgharị uche maka ihe niile metụtara asụsụ na omenala Igbo.

Ọzọkwa, ọ bụ ọrụ gọọment inye ndị derela maọbụ ndị na-ede akwụkwọ agụmagụ Igbo dị iche iche nkwado n’ụdị ego na ihe ndị ọzọ metụtara agụmagụ na edemede Igbo dịka kọmputa ha ga-eji na-agba mbọ ha na-agba, ịkwalite asụsụ na omenala ha, makana onye sọ ya na-aga n’ụzọ na-asị ewu nnọọ.

Ọzọkwakwa bụ na gọọment kwesirịrị iwelite ọkwa na ugwu ndị gụrụla asụsụ Igbo n’ogo dị elu, nye ha ezigbo ọrụ, iji me ka ọtụtụ nwewanyewe mmasị ịgụ na ide Igbo. Nke a ga-eme ka ha bụ ndị a na-akpọbụ ndị na-akụzị na ndị na-agụbụ Igbo, “Igbo Igbo, BK”, bụrụzie ndị nkuzi Igbo na ndị gụrụ Igbo a na-eme mbuuk..

N’ezie, ihe ndị a e dere ebe a abụghị maka ito maọbụ ịjali otu, kama ọ bụ iji kwu ka ihe dị, kpatara e ji si na nke e merela ruo na nke e kwesiri ileba anya. Ọ bụladị na ndị e merela eme, e nwere ọtụtụ mana dị na ha.

Mana dị na iwu ime asụsụ Igbo na omenala iwu
Dịka ọtụtụ iwu ụmụ Nigeria ejighi kpọrọ ihe, ọtụtụ echewela na iwu ịmụ asụsụ na omenala Igbo a n’ụlọ akwụkwọ agaghị adịgideli. N’ezie, echiche ha bụ ee na mba. Mana nke ọ bụla n’ihe ndị a bụ ihe ga-esi n’aka ndị mere iwu na nke ndị nkuzi na ndị ọzọ ọ dịịrị ichekwawa iwu.

Ọ bụrụrị na iwu ịgụ ma dee adị mfe, kedu ka ọ ga-esi kwe omume, ụmụ Igbo iwepu so na because na ụmụnne ha n’okwu ha na-ekwu n’ụbọchị Wenezdee. Iwu iyi akwa ọdịnala ndị Igbo n’aka nke ọzọ adịghị njọ, mana mmadụ ole ka nke a ga-echu ụra? Ọ dịghị mkpa ịsị na a ga na-ejide maọbụ na-eri iwu, ndị niile nupuru isi n’iwu ndị a, makana nke a ga-esi ike n’ala ndị dị ndụ. Iwu ọhụrụ ka ndị ụlọ omewe iwu nyerela anyị. Ahụ m bụ sọ ọńụ maka iwu ndị ahụ, ebe egwu m bụ na ndị be anyị ahụghị iwu n’anya. N’ihi ya, kama dimkpa ga-alụ ọgụ, gbaa ọsọ n’etiti ọgụ, kama ya amalitelarị mba ọgụ ma ncha.

E gbubie zokwụwa ...
Ọ bụ eziokwu na e meele iwu asụsụ Igbo ịbụ iwu na sekọndrị nta, na ndị ụlọ omewe iwu ike ekike e jiri mara ụmụ Igbo (ma a ka mara ha), ụbọchị Wenezdee niile, mana e nweela ọtụtụ mkpụrụ ọka si na nkata agadi nwanyị dasịsị n’ụzọ. Iwu ndị ahụ e tiri amaka, ma e dowe ha nke ọma, mana ọ ka dị ka iji mbazu gbu ukwu ọjị. Ebe ọ bụ na ihe mebirila emebi na ndụ Ndị Igbo, karịrị ihe a ga-eji naanị ihe dịka iwu abụọ dụkọkwa, e kwesiri iti ọtụtụ iwu, e kwesiri idowe edowe, ka a mara ma ugwu ndị Igbo ọ ga-abịaghachi ọ bụladị obere.

Ntọala e mebiri emebi na-esi ike ndozi, kpatara Igbo ji sị na e gbubie zokwụwa, ọ naghị ezuchazi. Ma ọ bụ eziokwu na e kwesighi ịtụcha atụrịtụ niile dị n’ajị, ka onye nwe ajị ghara ịgba ọtọ, mana a ga-atụrịrị ya bụ ajị, ọ bụladị obere, nke ọ bụrịrị mmadụ ga-atụ ya. Iri aka azụ, itufu ọfọ Igbo na ịga ufesi chụ ego ọnwụ ọnwụ, so na ihe ndị ụmụ Igbo jiri chụpụ ndụ na ọdịnala ndụ ha. Agụpụghị m ajọ ọchịchị ndị ọchịchị Nigeria, na ndị okenye arụrụala e nwegasịrị n’obodo dị iche iche n’ala Igbo, makana ndị a so na ndị tere ofe ebule jiri rachakwo eze.

Ọ bụrụ na asụsụ na omenala ndị a e nyeburu anyị bụ ụmụ Igbo amaka, kedu onye ga-educhigha anyị n’ụdị ịdị mma ha dị na mbụ? Mba, kedu etu anyị ga-esi chọta ụzọ anyị ga-esi laghachi azụ ebe ahụ anyị siri malite ndụ? Ụmụ Izrel sụkatara asụsụ Hebrew, gaa njem ejighi anya ọma ga na Babylon lọta, sụwazie Aramaic, tinyekwara ya ọfọchaziri n’omume ha. Ụmụ Igbo ji anya ọma chụrụ akụ na ụba gbasasịa n’enweghi olileanya nlaghachi azụ. Ebe asụsụ anyị bụzi Igbo ezughioke, omume anyị na-achọzi ugwu achọ, makana ụlọ anaghị adawa ghara uko. Ịsọpụrụ ndụ, eziokwu na ịkwụwa aka ọtọ, so na ihe ndị gboo hapụụrụ anyị dịka omenala, bụzi ihe anyị kpọdoziri isi n’ala, mewezie omenelu. Kaosiladị, ajọ ọnọdụ anyị ewutewela ọtụtụ ugbua, makana ọ ga-dị egwu ihe dịka afọ olenaole na-abịa abịa, ma ihe dịrị etu a na-aga; n’ihina nwata tufuru ọfọ nna ya nyere ya were nwụọ, mere nna ya ihe ọjọọ ma nke o mere onwe ya karịrị.

FEAR AS A MAJOR DISTORTION IN NORMAL BALANCE.

As a psychological concept, fear negatively affects the psychosystem of the victim of fear. In this context, it is necessary to note that fear is a common monster that haunts both man and animals. Hence the Igbo adage says, “Ọ bụ sọ osisi ka a ga-agwa na a ga-egbu ọ kwụrụ ebe ọ kwụ”, (it is only a tree that will continue to remain where it stands when it hears that it will be killed). Instructively, organisms intuitively flee from threatening objects, other animals in general, emotionally and irritably react to threatening objects, while human beings consciously, but emotionally battle with, or flee from threatening objects. It is necessary to note again that psychology has noted that, apart from anger, love and hatred, fear being one of the passions in man, is one of the psychological concepts that can emotionally be repressed. This write up does not as such aim to exhaust all there is to be said about fear, as its only aim is to look into only the moral and spiritual dimension of it.

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MORAL DIMENSION OF FEAR.
As a child, I remember many of us refusing to go to some places at nights with the reason that ‘egwu na-atụ m’, (I am afraid). However, with the promise of some little token, little pesuasion or threat as the case may be, we often faced the monster, and of course, eventually overcame fear. But the degree of this overcoming depended on individuals, and the promised outcome of the reason for facing the object of fear. This means that the degree of repression of not only fear, but the other passions depends on individuals and the promised reward or punishment, and of course some other environmental constraints. The two most simple definitions of fear that I purposely use in this write up are from a standard everyman’s dictionary and from a popular book on ethics. The Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary explains that “Fear means the bad feeling that you have when you are in danger, when something bad might happen, or when a particular thing frightens you”. Further explanation is that, this dictionary customarily explains that some elements in fear included the fear of somebody and the fear of something; the fear for somebody and the fear for something. To work with the elements that this definition has presented to us, means that one must see and understand fear in the context of danger, bad and frightening scenario. Again, understanding fear in the context of the above mentioned unpleasant concepts, or undertanding the above mentioned concepts in the context of fear implies that fear is something unpleasant, a negation as it is. And while on one hand, this unpalatableness in fear, can be brought about by somebody or soemething, on the other hand, it is geared towards somebody or something and to be felt directly by the object towards which it is directed, or indirectly by somebody who feels for the object towards which it is directed. Hence, “I am afraid of that madman”, “She is always afraid of the cliff”, “we are afraid of the outcome of that ugly development” etc.; “Ah my brother I feel for you oo!”, “Well, I am only afraid of the harm the injury will cause the horse later” etc. Thus the best definition of fear in the context of the dictionary in question, means that fear is a dreadable occurence arising from somebody or something, directed towards somebody or something and then felt by somebody.
From what I can call a more Christian definition of fear is that given by Peschke (1996:244). According to him, “fear is the shrinking back of the mind on account of an impending evil”. Peschke also added that “This intellectual fear is to be distinguished from the fear of the senses, which is one of the passions and to which therefore the principles of the passions are applicable”.
From the above definition, one can still as we have seen above, see that fear is the attitude that one emotionally and unconsciouly plunges himself or herself into, as a result of a sudden unpleasant occurence, or possible unpleasant development. And with this, let us look at fear as an emotional negation or spiritual acceptance.

Emotional negation.
As an emotional negatation, one can see fear as an emotional distraction, and if being unchecked for a long time can lead to a permanent psychological paralysis. Thus, if one is always afraid of shouting and if he or she continues to flee from scenes where he will likely hear shouting always, he may not grow used to shouting, and as such, for such a person shouting can become a monster that will continue to haunt him or her. Some psychologists believe that the greatest object of failure of a person, is that person’s inability to overcome himself inspite of himself; that is his inability to know his strenght, that he can do something. The inability to accept challenges with courage, implies the ability to admit shortcomings and flee from them. A person like that cannot say, “I can when and where he can”. He does not know the extent of his strenght and the limits of his limitations. Such a person hardly makes a leap in life. And as one of the passions in man, if his fear continues to go uncheked, time comes when he explodes and manifests his fear abruptly. And he may tend to fight the fear which is by now in his subconscious wrongly.
Fear can be minor or serious depending on whether it is caused by minor or serious evil which one can choose to avoid, ignore or face along with its possible consequences. In this regard, it is necessary to note that fear has two principles.
1. Fear does not destroy the voluntariness (i.e. the willingness) in somebody’s character to do something, but only reduces the guilt of its merit as the case may be.
2. Serious fear excuses from the obligations of every type of law (ecclesiastical, Civil, human, natural and divine positive laws). To put it better, a person who is forced to do something bad is almost always exenorated from the wrong act, while the strong arm of justice falls on the person who forced him or her to do the wrong thing. That is why consent and willingness is a necessary condition for someone to do something. That is why even in contracting marriage, even if all the members of the congregation and the families of the parties involved, with the priest and the sacrament, the marriage is invalid even if it is only one of the party does not consent. Again in (1996:247), Peschke noted that,
It is to be noted that ecclesiastical and civil law often invalidate actions rescindable at the instance of him who was influencedd by fear. Ecclesiastical law invalidates the following acts from the very beginning, if undertaken as a result of grave fear unjustly imposed; matrimony, admission to the novitiate, religious vows, promisory oaths, resignation from office etc.”.
Before I delve into God and fear, or rather fear and God, it is necessary to note that there is what is known as the fear of the unknown and the fear of the known. The fear of the unknown means that any possible, unpleasant occurence can occur any time without any fore knowledge of the victim. What makes it worrisome and indeed fearsome is the fact that the victim has by information or intuition known that such a danger that calls for fear is possible or even inevitable. Thus the fore knowlede of possible danger calls for wary on the part of the victim. In this case, the victim may know before hand that something might happen, but when, where and how, he may not know. What makes the unknown more worrisome is the fact that there is “danger” due to threatening situation, only that the limitation of knowledge does not allow one to know the extent, and in fact all about the possible danger so that he will know how to face it. Therefore, the only remedy is caution against the unknown; he will continue to have the fear for the unknown.
The fear of the known means a situation where one has gained the proper knowledge of the innevitable occurence before hand. “A nacked electrified wire is dangerous”, is just an open statement. However, the person who does not know all about the extent of the danger of necked electrified wire may stop at only knowing that nacked electrfied wire is dangerous. And such a person will only know that nacked electrified wire is dangerous and no more, while the person who knows all about necked electrified wire will have the fear of the known (death), to be brought about by the necked electrified wire. That means that knowledge or ignorance aggravates or mitigates fear, just as the culpability (or blameability) of any action due to it. Where a little more difficulty lies is in the event of the fear of God.

THE FEAR OF GOD
The bible states that “the fear of Yahweh is the beginning of wisdom”, (Psalm 111:10). The wisdom in this particular fear is that of giving to God the complete honour due to Him as the all, as oppsosed to the foolishness that made the fool who knows nothing about the fear of God, to say in his heart in Psalm 14, that ‘”there is no God above”. Detailed discussion of this might not be necessary here, since fear is not being treated here as a theological concept. In the treatment of fear as the opposite of love, The Catechism of the Catholic Church (no. 1767) states that, “The apprehension of evil causes hatred, awesome and fear of the impending evil; this movement ends in sadness at some present evil, or in the danger that resists it”.
In number 1831, the same book of doctrine listed the fear of the Lord as one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. But the question is, “how does one fear the Lord?”, “ Does one fear the Lord as whom he knows or as what he does not know? (The known or the unknown?). I suppose that the best way to fear the Lord is to fear Him as a known and as the unknown. This type of fear is wrapt up in what theologians call reverential fear. This type of fear implies that one knows much about God. And within that knowledge about God, he knows that he has not known much about God, therefore he should always hold him in fear. Therefore reverential fear of God means that one revers God because one knows God to some extent, and fears God because one lacks the required knowledge of God. Just like the wiil-o-the-wisp, the awareness of what one thinks about God does not make a person claim to have known Him, and even though one could think he knows Him, there are limits to that knowledge, since He is everything, including fear that even limits one’s knowledge about Him.

CONCLUSION.
We can here say that as one of the modifiers of human act, fear necessitates the shaping of individuals and peoples’ lives. However, as in many other things, if one or a group of people are not guided well to make the best out of their fears, fear can turn to be a monster to them. And here is where the role of conscience is very necessary.

Below are some tips to help us further to control our fears.
“Fear is a walking stick to fall with, or to lean on and learn with”
-Rich. N. Ekegbo.
“Fear is the mother of foresight”. -H. Taylor
“We must fear God through love and not love Him through fear”. – J. P. Camus
“Let us fear God; and we shall cease to fear man”. – Mahatma Gandhi
“It is a poor thing for anyone to fear that which is inevitable”. – Tertullian
“Who is more foolish, the child afraid of the dark or the man afraid of the light?”. – M. Freehill.

Bibliography
Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary, 6th Edition.
Peschke, H. K., (1996), Christian Ethics, vol. I, India: Theological
Publications.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, (1995) Kenya: Paulines
Publications-Africa.
Maurus, J., (2003), Something to think of; Mumbai: Better Yourself Books.

ICHI ECHICHI N’ALA IGBO
Echichi bụ ihe dị mkpa n’ala Igbo na n’omenala Igbo. Ọ bụ akara pụrụ iche e ji mara ndị Igbo; akara e ji eme ihe n’usoro na ezi nhazi nke ndọrọndọrọ, mmekọrịta ndị mmadụ na ibe ha na usoro e ji eji ihe akụ akụ, ihe e nwe enwe eleta ndụ anya, n’agụpụkwaghị usoro nhazi nke obibindụ ekpemekpe oge ọ dị mkpa.
Echichi n’ala Igbo na-adị n’ụdị dị iche iche na n’ogo dị iche iche, naanị na ọ na-abụ mmemme e ji ugwu bụrụkwa usoro ọchịchị e ji achị ma na-ahazi ndụ ndị mmadụ. Nzere echichi bụ ihe ndị e jiri mara ọtụtụ obodo n’Afrịka. Kaosiladị, usoro nzere nke echichi, nhazi na ọrụ na-adị iche iche dịka obodo siri dị. N’ebe ụfọdụ, ihe ndị e chiri echi na-eme abụrụla ihe ndị pụtawagara ihe nke na ha abụrụla ihe ndị a na-arụgara aka. Nke a mere o jiri dị mkpa ilega anya n’ihe gbasara etu echichi siri malite, akụkọala maka echichi, ogo echichi dị ga iche iche, ọrụ ndị echichi, ntozu, ugwu ya ga, oke na ọrụ ndị echichi, nsogbu na-eso ha n’ala Igbo, n’ezie n’Afrika.

Etu echichi siri malite n’ala Igbo na akụkọala maka ya.
Okwu ahụ kwuru na Igbo e nwe eze, bụ ihe si n’okwu oke amamihe pụta nke ihe kpatara ya bụ usoro ndọrọndọrọ nke e ji onye ga-aka m, na ọ bụ anyị ka ọ dịịrị ịchị butere. Usoro ọchịchị dị n’ụdị mgbagwo ma na-etokwa eto n’ihi na ọ sọkwụnyere isi n’ihe gbasara agbụrụ. Onye ọ bụla dị ka alụsị na be ya; ogbe ọ bụla na obodo ọ bụla bụkwa ihe kansụl ndị okenye na-achị.

Ogo echichi dị iche iche
Onye ọ bụla na-aga n’ihu ma nwee ọtụtụ ndị nọ n’okpuru ya, dị ka o siri dị, na-edebanye aha, ma na-eme ka a mara maka agamnihu ya site n’ichi otu echichi. Ogo echichi na nzere na-eso ha na-adị n’iche n’iche dịka obodo ọ bụla siri hazi ya.
Ka ihe si dị, Eze maọbụ Igwe bụ ogo echichi nke kacha dị elu. Eze maọbụ Igwe bụ onye ọchịchị nke obodo ya. Yanwa bụ onye ndu ndọrọndọrọ, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, n’ihe gbasara ibi ndụ oriri na ọńụńụ ọ bụladị onye ndu nke usoro ofufe (n’ogo ụfọdụ n’obodo). Ọ bụ ya bụ akara pụtara ihe maka obodo ya. Ọ na-enye ntuziaka na-eme ka usoro ime ihe na udo na-adị n’obodo ma na-arụkwa ihe ndị ga-eme ka ihe dịrị ndị nọ n’okpuru ya mma. Tupu mmadụ abụrụ Igwe maọbụ Eze obodo, ọ ga-echigodu obere echichi ndị ọzọ. Kaosiladị, e nwere ike inwe ọnọdụ ga-adapụta, ga-eme ka mmadụ hapụ ime etu ahụ tupu ọ bụrụ Igwe maọbụ Eze obodo.
Ndị ọzọ na-eso ogo nke Igwe bụ ndị Onowu, bụ ndị na-enyere igwe aka dịka osote onye isiala na ndị minista. Iji ma atụ, a bịa n’ọdịnanị Igboukwu, ndị minista ahụ na-adị n’ogo Ójì, Alọ, na Ódù. Ndị a bụ ndị na-anọ n’ọnọdụ kacha elu n’ihi na ha bụ ndị Isi ichie ma bụrụkwa ndị Ichie nke akụkụ nke ha.
Ndị Ichie bụ ndị na-esote ndị Isi Ichie. A na-esi n’ogo ọchịchị nta nke a na-akpọ ward were ahọpụta ha. Ha bụkwa ndị na-ahụ maka ihe na-eme na ward ha dị iche iche.
Ogo nke ikpeazụ na-abụkarị otu Nze na Ọzọ. Nke a na-abụkarị nzere nke ụmụ nwoke na ụmụnwanyị akajiakụ na-ewere. Echichi ọzọ bụ ihe ugwu bụrụkwa ihe dị ezigbo mkpa maka nyere ụmụ nwoke. Ọ bụ ihe a na-emere ọtụtụ ihe were abanye na ya, ma bụrụkwa ihe a na-esi na ya azọbanye ụkwụ n’ime ọtụtụ ihe n’obodo.

i. Ọrụ metụtara mmadụ na ibe ya ndị chiri echichi na-arụ n’obodo
Ndị igwe na-arụ ọtụtụ ọrụ metụtara mmadụ na ibe ha, na-arụkwara ndị mmadụ ọrụ dị iche iche. Nke a na-apụta ihe site n’etu ha si agba ndị otu dị iche iche ha na mmadụ ibe ha na-enwe mmekọrịta dị iche iche ume, were agwa ha ka ha na-enyere ndị mmadụ aka. Ndị na-aba otu ọgbọ bụ ndị a na-agba ume ka ha banye n’ụdị otu ndị a maka inwe ọzụzụ na idowe iwu obodo. Echichi na-ejikọtakwa mmadụ niile ọnụ ma na-eme ka e nwee ezi nhazi n’obodo.
Echichi na-emekwa ka e nwee ezi usoro nke nhazi nke ndụ, na-eme ka e nwee ịdịkọ n’otu na ime nwanne n’ime ogo ndị niile nọ n’obodo. Site n’echichi, a na-enwe otu mmekọrịta ndị mmadụ na ibe ha etu kwesiri ekwesi, nke na-eme ka e nwee agamnihu. Usoro echichi na-eme ka ndị mmadụ nwere ụdị echiche na omume dị iche iche, anaghị adabakọta na-abịakọta ọnụ. Oge a na-eme emume ikpunye okpu echichi, a na-enwe ụzụ ańụrị nke na-esi n’egwu dị iche iche, na mmọnwụ dị iche iche na-agba apụta. A na-ewe oriri a ka ihe mba Nigeira niile. Ndị Igwe na-akpachapụrụ usoro ndụ ndị otu ha na ndị nọ n’okpuru ha anya site n’inwega ụfọdụ iwu na-echekwa ha n’onwe ha n’obodo.
Echichi na-eme ka ọdịnala obodo na-adị ire site na ndị mmadụ ịsonye n’ihe ndị a na-eme, site n’inwe nke onye ọ bụla dị na ya, na site na mmekọrịta ndị mmadụ na ibe ha. Ọ na-akọwa maka ihe dịịrị onye n’obodo na ọrụ ndị kwesiri ndị nọ n’ogo nta dịka ịga agha, ofufe na ihe ndị ọzọ a na-eme n’obodo.

ii. Ọrụ ndọrọndọrọ na Ọrụ Idowe iwu.
Otu echichi bụ ihe e ji achị ọchịchị n’obodo. Ọ bụ ihe doro anya na a na-akpọtụrụ onye e chichi tupu a bagide ihe ụfọdụ siri ike a ga-akpa n’obodo ọ bụla. Nke a pụtara na oge ọ bụla ndị chiri echichi n’obodo nọkọrọ ọnụ, ha na-adọtara ndị nke ha ihe omume ndị sitere na ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị.
Ọchịchị na-arụkwa ọrụ ikpenkwụmọtọ site n’ikpe ikpe na ike ikpe n’obodo. Ọ na-eji ndị ichie ya emewe iwu maka ọdịmma nke ndị obodo.

iii. Ọrụ mkpata na mmefu
Ọchịchị bụ ụzọ e si enweta ihe e ji enyere ndụ aka, na-eme ka obodo na-aga n’ihu, site n’ime ka ndị na-achọ ichi echichi nwee ego ha ga-akwụ maka echichi ha chọrọ ichi. N’otu aka ahụ, ndị chiri echichi na-eji ego enyere ndị obodo ha aka, ọ kachasị n’oge e nwere ihe nsogbu dakwasịrị ha. Oge ụdọdụ ha na-eji ego ha eme ka ndị nọ n’okpuru ha bagide asọmpi, na-emekwa ka e nwee ọtụtụ ọrụ ga-eme ka a na-enweta ego n'obodo.

SỤWAKWA IGBO

OTU SỤWAKWA IGBO is an Igbo organization that was born to promote the course of Igbo language.  Igbo language is one of the three major Languages of Nigeria.

IGBO/AFRICAN PROVERBS

 
Proverbs
Proverbs are cultural repositories that are particular to every group of people.  The way words, elements and cultural expressions are made and used within the context of any culture says much about the life the people and thier environment.  In relation to Igbo culture, Nwadike (2009:6), quoting Achabe thus, “Proverbs are the palm oil with which words are eaten”.  This means that proverbs are very vital in speaking the Igbo language, just as blood is very vital for life.  Nwadike agrees with Achabe that proverbs are as good as lubricants that make speeches to bring out the full meaning in every speeches.  Thus Nwadike (1977:6) states that, “Proverbs are a rhetorical device which enhances the ability of the speaker to make a speech in a concise, figurative and enriched manner, far in advance of what plain and ordinary speech can do.”  By expressing that proverbs are rhetorical device, Nwadike shows that proverbs can help one to manipulate the use of language wihtin which he employs the proverbs.  Thus Nwadike’s definition is a welcomed definition in line with what proverbs do in spoken languages As proverbial as Achabe’s definition seems, Obiechina, who agrees with him, gives further explanation of proverbs.  For Obiechina (1975:156):
 
... proverbs are the kernels which contain the wisdom of the traditional people.  They are the philosophical and moral expositions shrunk to a few words, and they form a mnemonic device in societies in which everything worth knowing and relevant to day-to-day life has to be committed to memory.
 
Obiechina’s definiton of proverbs shows that proverbs go beyond Achabes oil with which words are eaten.  His own definition shows that proverbs contain things beyond oil as he expresses that they are kernels which is an element that lies well beyond the level in which oil is extracted.  Further analysis of kernel is that it is a hard substance that contains some useful substance that are of worth and usable.  His explanation of proverbs as containing the wisdom of the traditional people shows that proverbs are very vital and indispensable in the life of any group of people as reasoning beings.  Perhaps, the important aspect of proverbs as a speech device and an indispensable tool is better seen in the definition of Egudu (1977) who defines it it as, “... tool for linguistic expression and compositions for the purpose of rhetorical adornment and persuasion.”  Thus his definition expresses that proverbs have force.  
 
The Igbo Proverbs
Proverbs are repositories of pieces of wise sayings that have being in use for long.  Igbo people as a group of people with their own culture make much use of proverbs.  These proverbs often manifest the rich wisdom of the people, especially the wisdom of those who make much use of them.  Igbo people use proverbs to express their feelings and their cultural activities.  With proverbs, they drive home to their audience whatever information they intend to pass.  So much are the meanings in Igbo proverbs and the wisdom they contain that Achebe (1996:15) expresses that “Proverbs are the oil with which words are eaten”.  To stress further the rich wisdom in proverbs, and to give more insight into Achebe’s observation, with a little piece of history, Yusuf (no date) explains that:
 
Proverbs, as we know, form a vital sector of folklore which has survived centuries of imperial relegation of African cultural Legacies and heritage.  Proverbs are rhetorical device which enhances the ability of the speaker to make a speech in a concise, figurative and enriched manner, far in advance of what plain and ordinary speech can do.
 
Yusuf’s words show that proverbs are speech in special usage, which when used well produces special magnetic effects than speeches made without proverbs.  Again, it is also worthwhile to observe that Yusuf also believes that proverbs are a form of legacy and heritage.  But although he tries to limit the usage to Africa, Wansbrough (1984:965) explains that “The Book of Proverbs has undoubtedly been far transcended by that of Christ, the Wisdom of God; even so, several teachings of the gospel”.  This explanation shows that collection of proverbs, whether as legacies or mere deposit of wise sayings extends beyond the soil of Africa; the word proverbs itself is an English concept.  Naylor (1997:9) observes that “Cultural anthropologists assume that ideas, thoughts, beliefs and values shared among cultural groups relate to behaviours and practices of the people”.  This means that above mentioned concepts are what is always common among every group of people whether the conditions of their existence are the same with another group of people elsewhere or not.  Nigeria which is only a country out of many countries of Africa has many ethnic groups, and Igbo culture, one of the three major ethnic groups has its own cultural peculiarities.  Quoting Naylor, Njoku observes that, “Being born Igbo does give a person the rights of ethnic identity, but to be truly Igbo… the person must learn the language, beliefs, thoughts, and lore (amamihe), which distinguish him or her as Igbo.
 
Reacting to Ohaeto’s The Voice of the Night Masquerade, and in a bid to the importance of proverbs in language aspect of Igbo culture, Onwudiwe and Obiorah (2009:210) agree that Ohaeto “… projects some aspects of notable Igbo people ways of life through their proverbs, idioms and wellisms”.  This means that the way of life of Igbo people are often expressed through some forms of rhetorical expressions and such expressions in the context of Igbo proverbs is always accepted with special admiration by Igbo people in particular, and even to some who are not of Igbo origin.  Okeke (2011) believes that “Ilu ndị Igbo na-enyere ndị ma atụ ya aka ịhazi okwu ha nke ọma” (Igbo proverbs help those who know how to apply them to express themselves better)  This observation attaches more importance to the ability of using the Igbo proverbs contextually and its implication.  Although Okeke’s observation is worthwhile, but the problem is that there are not much people who use Igbo proverbs to express themselves these days.  The efforts to make better use of Igbo proverbs by more Igbo people is continues and sometimes arduous.  In his effort to express this, Amadiume (2000:vi) stresses that:
 
A dedicated effort has been made … to initiate both the young and the old in what is considered as the essentials that make the Igbo proverbs titillate and scintillate.  The wisdom of the wise and the experiences of ages are preserved in Igbo proverbs here provided.
 
The effort to make non Igbo speaking group tap from the wisdom that are packed in Igbo proverbs as Amadiume notes, is the effort of this work.  The ability to do this depends on the extent that the work can break through untranslatability at least with the proverbs that will be sampled in the work.
 
 
REFERENCES
Achebe, C. (1996). Things Fall Apart.  Great Britain: The Chaucer press.
 
Amadiume, S. (2000). Ilu Ndi Igbo vol. 3. Enugu: Aritz Communication.
 
Egudu, R.N. (1977), “Nature and Function of Anecdotes”, Journal of the Odinani Museum, Nri.
         Vol. 2, quoted in Nwadike, N. (2009). Igbo Proverbs. Enugu: Paschal
         Communications.
 
Larry Naylor, Ed. (1997:9) Cultural Diversity in United States.  Westport, CT: Bergin &  Garvey.
 
Lifco,     (1997). Select Proverbs and Quotations, Eleventh ed. Madras: The Little Flower  co.          
 
Njọku, J.A.K. (2010). Amamihe Igbo. New Jersey: Goldline & Jacobs Publishing.
 
Nwadike, N. (2009). Igbo Proverbs. Enugu: Paschal Communications
 
Obiechina, E. (1975). Culture, Tradition and Society in the West African Novel: Cambridge University Press.
 
Obingene A. U. and Okeke M.I. (2001). Citizenship Education: Concepts and Application Vol. 2, Enugu: Academic Publishing Company. 
 
Okeke, I (2001). An Observation After A Published Lecture at Otu Sụwakwa Igbo Initiative convention at Abagana, Njikọka L.G.A., Anambra State, on June 22, 2011.
 
Onwudiwe, G. & Obiorah, T. (2009). The Igbo Cultural Affinity of Ezenwa Ohaeto’s  Literary Language in Voice of the Night Masquerade in African Literature and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Joy Eyisi, Ike Odimegwu, Ezenwa
 
Onwudufor, F.O.F. (2008). Mmanụ E ji Eri Okwu Vol. II. Enugu: SNAAP PRESS LTD.
 
Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary, (2001) 6th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
 
Retrieved on 24/6/2011 from  http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_elements_make_up_a_culture.
 
Retrieved on 12/4/2011 from, http://www.igboniile.com/articles/iluigbo
 
Spears, R. A. Ed. (2005). Viva’s Dictionary of Proverbs and Clichés. New Delhi: Viva Books Private Limited 
 
Wansbrough, H. (1984). The New Jerusalem Bible. London: Darton, Longman & Todd.
 
Yusuf, J. B. Ed. (no date). Nigerian Proverbs and Wise Sayings: A Focus on Children Ilorin: University of National Institute for Cultural Orientation (NICO).

IGBO/AFRICAN PROVERBS 2

Otu onye nọrọ naanị ya odudu atagbuo ya: One swallow does not make a summer.
 
A nyụkọọ amịrị ọnụ ọ gbaa ụfụfụ: Many hands make light work.
 
Akanri kwọọ akaekpe akaekpe akwọọ akanri: One good turn deserves another.
 
Ahịa mbe abụọ zụkọrọ uru anaghị adị ya: Two captains do not sail a ship.
Agadi nwanyị daa nda ada abụọ a gụọ ihe o bu n’ụkpa ọnụ: Once beaten, twice shy.

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