Sponsored
Search
Navigation

MORPHPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF IGBO VERBS (II) –Rich. N. Ekegbo

The Igbo Vowels and Their Groups
The summary of the Igbo vowels and their groups can be seen thus:
Ụdaume dị n’asụsụ Igbo

A, Ị, Ọ, Ụ, E, O, I, U

Otu Ụdamfe Otu Ụdaarọ

Some examples in Otu Ụdamfe are: Ịchị, Ịsụ, Ịmị, Ịkụ, Ịdụ, Ịzụ, Ịkwụ, Ịrụ, Ịlụ, Ịñụ
Some examples Otu Ụdaarọ are: Idi, Idu, Izi, Iri, Ichi, Ibi, Iti, Ikwu, Igwu, Iji.

All the mentioned verbs and other carefully chosen regular verbs follow the same morphological processes and influence the sentences in which they appear in as such. These can all be seen in the tables below. Table one below tables the listed infinitive verbs under Ụdamfe and Ụdaarọ and how they are made to change into verb root and participles.

Table one:

Infinitives
Ịchị (To lead)
Ịsụ (to clear)
Ịmị (To roast)
Ịkụ (To sow)
Ịdụ (to chook)
Ịzụ (to train)
Ịkwụ (To pay)
Ịrụ (To work)
Ịlụ (To marry)
Ịñụ (To drink)

Isingwaa
(verb Root)
Chị
Sụ
Mị
Kụ
Dụ
Zụ
Kwụ
Rụ
Lụ
Ñụ

Nganihu
(prefix)

A + chị
A + sụ
A + mị
A + kụ
A + dụ
A + zụ
A+ Kwụ
A + rụ
A + lụ
A + ñụ

Mmekangwaa
(P. Participle)
Achị
Asụ
Amị
Akụ
Adụ
Azụ
Akwụ
Arụ
Alụ
Añụ

Meaning
To lead
To clear (bush)
To roast
To sow seed
To chook
To train
To pay
To work
To marry
To drink

It should be noted that any infinitive that has the Ị vowel at the beginning should have in the same infinitive word, only vowels from the same group of vowels with the light vowel which the Ị is part of. The same rule also applies if I begins an infinitive word. When the Ị or I is removed from the infinitive, what remains is the verb root. And to arrive at the participle, the prefix “A” is attached (if the verb began with an “Ị”), or an “E” is attached (if the verb began with an “I”).
In Igbo Language, Omekangwaa (that is the participle) makes meaning only when it has received an attachment of “Na” or “Ga” with a hyphen, to become a word that indicates the present tense, the present continues or a future tense as the case may be. Table two gives some examples.
Table two

Infinitive

Idi (To bear)
Idu (To lead)
Izi (To send)
Iri (To eat)
Ichi (To ordain)
Ibi (To live)
Iti (To beat)
Ikwu (To say)
Igwu (To dig)
Iji (To hold)

Isingwaa
(verb Root)

Di
Du
Zi
Ri
Chi
Bi
Ti
Kwu
Gwu
Ji

Nganihu
(prefix)

E + di
E + du
E + zi
E + ri
E + chi
E + bi
E + ti
E + kwu
E + gwu
E + ji

Mmekangwaa
(participle)

Edi
Edu
Ezi
Eri
Echi
Ebi
Eti
Ekwu
Egwu
Eji

Meaning

To bear
To lead
To send
To eat
To ordain
To peel, to live
To beat a person
To speak, to say
To dig
To shy away from
Example of the above in sentence: Ọ ga-edi = He has to bear

The infinitive of a verb can be made to change to simple present tense with the attachment of the auxiliary verb “na” with a hyphen thus “na-“. Table three gives the examples of these.

Table three
Nnyemaka ngwaa
(Present Participle)

Edi
Edu
Ezi
Eri
Echi
Ebi
Eti
Ekwu
Egwu
Eji

Mmekangwaa
(Infinitive)

Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-
Na-

Nnyemakangwaa (Av.) na-

Na-edi
Na-edu
Na-ezi
Na-eri
Na-echi
Na-ebi
Na-eti
Na-ekwu
Na-egwu
Na-eji

Meaning

Is enduring
Is leading
Is sending
Is eating
Is ordaining
Is living
Is beating
Is talking
Is digging
Is holding

Example in sentence: Ọ na-edi ihe o mere ha = He is enduring what he did to them.

Example in sentence: Ọ na-edi ihe o mere ha = He is enduring what he did to them.

Like in table three above, the infinitive of a verb can be made to change to simple future tense with the attachment of the auxiliary verb “ga” with a hyphen thus “na-“. Table four gives the examples of these.
Table four

Nnyemaka ngwaa
(Present Participle)

Edi
Edu
Ezi
Eri
Echi
Ebi
Eti
Ekwu
Egwu
Eji

Mmekangwaa
(Infinitive)

Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-
Ga-

Nnyemakangwaa (Av.) na-

Ga-edi
Ga-edu
Ga-ezi
Ga-eri
Ga-echi
Ga-ebi
Ga-eti
Ga-ekwu
Ga-egwu
Ga-eji

Meaning

Will bear
Will lead
Will send
Will eat
Will ordain
Will live
Will beat
Will talk
Will dig
Will hold
Example in sentence: Ha ga-edi ihe o mere ha: They will bear what he did to them.

From the morphological process, the infinitive verb can arrive at future continues from the simple present and simple future. And this is done when the two auxiliary verbs “na” and “ga” are joined together before they are linked to the participle in question. To do this, “ga” will go separately and will loose its hyphen, but gives a space before “na” will join to the participle with the aid of a hyphen. Example, “ga na-abịa”. Other examples are in table five.

Mmekangwaa
(Present
Participle)

Edi
Edu
Ezi
Eri
Echi
Ebi
Eti
Ekwu
Egwu
Eji

Nnyemaka
ngwaa (Av.)
ga-

Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga
Ga

Nnyemaka
ngwaa (Av.)
na-

Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na

Ndịnịhu
(future cont.)

Ga na-edi
Ga na-edu
Ga na-ezi
Ga na-eri
Ga na-echi
Ga na-ebi
Ga na-eti
Ga na-ekwu
Ga na-egwu
Ga na-eji

Meaning

Will be bearing
Will be leading
Will be sending
Will be eating
Will be ordaining
Will be living
Will be beating
Will be talking
Will be digging
Will be holding

Example in sentence: Ọ ga na-edi = He has to be bearing

GERUND (Jerọndụ)
This is another verbal derivative in Igbo language. In Igbo language, gerund is derived by duplicating the verb root of a verb and then prefixing the word “O” or “Ọ” according to the vowel group that the verb root in question falls into. Table six and seven show this.

Table six
Isingwaa
(verb Rt)

Chị
Sụ
Mị
Kụ
Dụ
Zụ
Kwụ
Rụ
Lụ
Ñụ

Isingwaa x2
(V. Rt. x2)

Chị + chị
Sụ + sụ
Mị + mị
Kụ + kụ
Dụ + dụ
Zụ + zụ
Kwụ+kwụ
Rụ + rụ
Lụ + lụ
Ñụ + ñụ

Isingwaa ukwu

Chịchị
Sụsụ
Mịmị
Kụkụ
Dụdụ
Zụzụ
Kwụkwụ
Rụrụ
Lụlụ
Ñụñụ

Mgbakwụnye
(Prefix)

Ọ + chịchị
Ọ + sụsụ
Ọ + mịmị
Ọ + kụkụ
Ọ + dụdụ
Ọ +zụzụ
Ọ + kwụkwụ
Ọ + rụrụ
Ọ + lụlụ
Ọ + ñụñụ

Gerọnd
(Gerund)

Ọchịchị
Ọsụsụ
Ọmịmị
Ọkụkụ
Ọdụdụ
Ọzụzụ
Ọkwụkwụ
Ọrụrụ
Ọlụlụ
Ọñụñụ Meaning

Leading
Clearing
Roasting
Sowing seed
Poking
Training
Paying
Working
Marrying
Drinking
Example in sentence: Ha na-ekwu maka ọchịchị = They are talking about leading.

Example in sentence: Ọ ga na-edi = He has to be bearing

GERUND (Jerọndụ)
This is another verbal derivative in Igbo language. In Igbo language, gerund is derived by duplicating the verb root of a verb and then prefixing the word “O” or “Ọ” according to the vowel group that the verb root in question falls into. Table six and seven show this.

Table six
Isingwaa
(verb Rt)

Chị
Sụ
Mị
Kụ
Dụ
Zụ
Kwụ
Rụ
Lụ
Ñụ

Isingwaa x2
(V. Rt. x2)

Chị + chị
Sụ + sụ
Mị + mị
Kụ + kụ
Dụ + dụ
Zụ + zụ
Kwụ+kwụ
Rụ + rụ
Lụ + lụ
Ñụ + ñụ

Isingwaa ukwu

Chịchị
Sụsụ
Mịmị
Kụkụ
Dụdụ
Zụzụ
Kwụkwụ
Rụrụ
Lụlụ
Ñụñụ

Mgbakwụnye
(Prefix)

Ọ + chịchị
Ọ + sụsụ
Ọ + mịmị
Ọ + kụkụ
Ọ + dụdụ
Ọ +zụzụ
Ọ + kwụkwụ
Ọ + rụrụ
Ọ + lụlụ
Ọ + ñụñụ

Gerọnd
(Gerund)

Ọchịchị
Ọsụsụ
Ọmịmị
Ọkụkụ
Ọdụdụ
Ọzụzụ
Ọkwụkwụ
Ọrụrụ
Ọlụlụ
Ọñụñụ

Meaning

Leading
Clearing
Roasting
Sowing seed
Poking
Training
Paying
Working
Marrying
Drinking
Example in sentence: Ha na-ekwu maka ọchịchị = They are talking about leading

Table seven
Isingwaa
(Vb. Rt.)

Di
Du
Zi
Ri
Chi
Bi
Ti
Kwu
Gwu
Ji Isingwaa x2
(Vb.Rt. x2)

Di + di
Du + du
Zi + zi
Rị + ri
Chi + chi
Bi + bi
Ti + ti
Kwu + kwu
Gwu + gwu
Ji + ji Isingwaa ukwu

Didi
Dudu
Zizi
Riri
Chichi
Bibi
Titi
Kwukwu
Gwugwu
Jiji Mgbakwụnye
(Prefix)

O + didi
O + dudu
O + zizi
O + riri
O + chichi
O + bibi
O + titi
O + kwukwu
O + gwugwu
O + jiji
Gerọnd
(Gerund)

Odidi
Odudu
Ozizi
Oriri
Ochichi
Obibi
Otiti
Okwukwu
Ogwugwu
Ojiji Meaning

Enduring
Leading
Sending
Feasting
Ordaining
Dwelling
Beating
Saying
Digging
Holding
Example in sentence: Ndị ahụ bụ ndị oriri = They are a feasting group.
This is called Full reduplication

There are however many verbs that are irregular in nature in Igbo language. The irregularity of these irregular verbs are often influenced by the dialects of the people that use them. Below are the examples of some of the irregular verbs.

Table eight

Isingwa
(V. Rt.)

Za
Ga
Gha
Chọ
Kpọ
Fe
De
We
Gwe
Nye

Isingw. x2
(V. Rt. x2)

Zị + za
Gị + ga
Ghị + gha
Chị + chọ
Kpụ + kpọ
Fu + fe
Di + de
Wu + we
Gwu+ gwe
Nyi + nye

Isingwaa- ukwu

Zịza
Gịga
Ghịgha
Chịchọ
Kpụkpọ
Fufe
Dide
Wuwe
Gwugwe
Nyinye
Mgbakwụnye
(Prefix)

Ọ + zịza
Ọ + gịga
Ọ + ghịgha
Ọ + chịchọ
Ọ + kpụkpọ
O + fufe
O + dide
O + wuwe
O + gwugwe
O + nyinye Jerọnd
(Gerund)

Ọzịza
Ọgịga
Ọghịgha
Ọchịchọ
Ọkpụkpọ
Ofufe
Odide
Owuwe
Ogwugwe
Onyinye
Meaning

Answering
Going, on the go
Spreading(seed)
Looking(for)
Calling
Worshipping
Writing
Taking
Grinding
Giving

Example in sentence: Ugbua bụ oge odide ihe = This is the time of writing
This is called partial reduplication.

While the harmony of the vowels run through all the above verbal forms, the irregularity of the irregular verbs cannot be determined in any form. Again, the formation shows some irregularity from those of the regular verbs.

Of much impact in Igbo language are the semi-vowels; that is the myiriụdaume. The two alphabets “m” and “n” which alphabetically follow each other, looks as if they are a go-between the consonants and the Igbo vowels, and also act as such. Their role is made manifest in the formation of certain words which they either begin or end. Here are some words which these semi-vowels make impact.
Table nine
Words with the half-vowels of “m” Words with the half-vowels of “n”
1. Mma -Knife
2. Mmiri - water
3. Mmuo - Spirit
4. Mmadụ - Person
5. Mmanya - Wine.

1. Nna - Father
2. Nne - Mother
3. Nnu - Salt
4. Nnụnụ - Bird
5. Nnukwu - Great, Big

Table seven
Isingwaa
(Vb. Rt.)

Di
Du
Zi
Ri
Chi
Bi
Ti
Kwu
Gwu
Ji Isingwaa x2
(Vb.Rt. x2)

Di + di
Du + du
Zi + zi
Rị + ri
Chi + chi
Bi + bi
Ti + ti
Kwu + kwu
Gwu + gwu
Ji + ji Isingwaa ukwu

Didi
Dudu
Zizi
Riri
Chichi
Bibi
Titi
Kwukwu
Gwugwu
Jiji Mgbakwụnye
(Prefix)

O + didi
O + dudu
O + zizi
O + riri
O + chichi
O + bibi
O + titi
O + kwukwu
O + gwugwu
O + jiji
Gerọnd
(Gerund)

Odidi
Odudu
Ozizi
Oriri
Ochichi
Obibi
Otiti
Okwukwu
Ogwugwu
Ojiji Meaning

Enduring
Leading
Sending
Feasting
Ordaining
Dwelling
Beating
Saying
Digging
Holding
Example in sentence: Ndị ahụ bụ ndị oriri = They are a feasting group.
This is called Full reduplication

There are however many verbs that are irregular in nature in Igbo language. The irregularity of these irregular verbs are often influenced by the dialects of the people that use them. Below are the examples of some of the irregular verbs.

Table eight

Isingwa
(V. Rt.)

Za
Ga
Gha
Chọ
Kpọ
Fe
De
We
Gwe
Nye

Isingw. x2
(V. Rt. x2)

Zị + za
Gị + ga
Ghị + gha
Chị + chọ
Kpụ + kpọ
Fu + fe
Di + de
Wu + we
Gwu+ gwe
Nyi + nye

Isingwaa- ukwu

Zịza
Gịga
Ghịgha
Chịchọ
Kpụkpọ
Fufe
Dide
Wuwe
Gwugwe
Nyinye
Mgbakwụnye
(Prefix)

Ọ + zịza
Ọ + gịga
Ọ + ghịgha
Ọ + chịchọ
Ọ + kpụkpọ
O + fufe
O + dide
O + wuwe
O + gwugwe
O + nyinye Jerọnd
(Gerund)

Ọzịza
Ọgịga
Ọghịgha
Ọchịchọ
Ọkpụkpọ
Ofufe
Odide
Owuwe
Ogwugwe
Onyinye
Meaning

Answering
Going, on the go
Spreading(seed)
Looking(for)
Calling
Worshipping
Writing
Taking
Grinding
Giving

Example in sentence: Ugbua bụ oge odide ihe = This is the time of writing
This is called partial reduplication.

While the harmony of the vowels run through all the above verbal forms, the irregularity of the irregular verbs cannot be determined in any form. Again, the formation shows some irregularity from those of the regular verbs.

Of much impact in Igbo language are the semi-vowels; that is the myiriụdaume. The two alphabets “m” and “n” which alphabetically follow each other, looks as if they are a go-between the consonants and the Igbo vowels, and also act as such. Their role is made manifest in the formation of certain words which they either begin or end. Here are some words which these semi-vowels make impact.
Table nine
Words with the half-vowels of “m” Words with the half-vowels of “n”
1. Mma -Knife
2. Mmiri - water
3. Mmuo - Spirit
4. Mmadụ - Person
5. Mmanya - Wine.

1. Nna - Father
2. Nne - Mother
3. Nnu - Salt
4. Nnụnụ - Bird
5. Nnukwu - Great, Big

The above are some half vowels/nasals/semi-vowels. On the other hand, the half vowels serve as vowels when they begin a word and are followed by a consonant in the word. E.g.,

Table ten
The “m” half vowel the “n” half-wowel
1. Mbe - Tortoise
2. Mbene - Ladybird
3. Mkpọ - Walking Stick
4. Mkpi - He-goat
5. Mkpụrụ - Seed 1. Nga - Cell, Prison
2. Ngana - Laziness
3. Ncha - Soap
4. Ntụ - Ash
5. Ndidi - Patience

Generally, except in the case of borrowed words, consonants do not end Igbo words. But few exceptions are where the alphabet “m” end words. And when it does, it is considered as vowels in such words. Eg. Mahadum – University;
Dum – All; Uriom – Pullet; gbamgbam: zinc

The Tones.
The Igbo Language like the Yoruba Language is a tonal language, only that the tonality is more conspicuous in Igbo language. In Igbo language the same word can mean two or more things, depending on how they are pronounced. The tones in Igbo language which are called ụdaolu are three in number. They are:

ỤDAOLU

ụdaelu “ ́ “ ụdaala ” ̀ “ ụdaetiti/ụdansụda “ ̄ “

The tone marking is placed on the vowels of the word. Again since tone marking is made to bring out the meaning and the pronunciation of a word, care should be taken when tone marking is being done, and that means it is only those who know the Igbo language well that can pronounce the words well and tone mark them best. Tthough the native speakers possess competence/innate ability to pronounce these words but they might not be able to tone mark them. For the benefit of especially the non Igbo speakers, here are some examples of same words that metamorphose in meaning when pronounced with different tones.
ISI
i. ísí - Head
ii. ìsì – Blindness
iii. ísì – Odour, smell
Oke
i. òkè – Share, portion
ii. òké – Rat, mouse
iii. óké – Male, Masculine

Ọkụ
i. ókú – Fire
ii. òkù – Earthenware plate
iii. ókù – Animal farming
Ọkwa
i. ókwá – Earthenware plate
ii. òkwà –
iii. ókwà – Announcement
Ukwu
i. úkwú – Huge, great
ii. ùkwù – Bundle (of firewood)
iii. úkwù – Hip

Some other words that change in pronunciation and meaning in Igbo language include Anya, eze, ezi, ụzọ, ude, ọnya, ụka, ụda. One thing that should be noted is that all these words are words that are bisylabial, just as the words are made up of only three alphabets.

4.2 Genda
Igbo language unlike many languages does not have genda. As such, in Igbo language, there is no special way of distinguishing male from female. Rather the personal pronouns, “o” and “ọ”, the impersonal pronouns, “a” and “e”, (and their subject “ya”), as well as the context are used to indicate the genda of the noun being talked about. While “o” and “ọ” serve as indicators of genda in the active voice, the “a” and “e” which are used for declarative sentences are passive in nature in sentences. “o” “ọ” are third person personal pronouns (nnọchiaha nke onye), but “a” and “e” are impersonal pronouns (nnọchi mpesin).
Examples are: B. O, Ọ and YA
i. O kwuru = He/She/It said
ii. Ọ bịara = He/She/It came
iii. O zuru = it was enough (in this case it is presumed that the item being referred to “it” is not a person because human being cannot be “enough”). This means that words suggests what is being talked about.
iv. O buuru ya = He/She/It carried him/her/it.
v. O jidere ya = He/She/It caught him/her/it.

The Impersonal pronouns A and E
The above impersonal pronouns are better used to bring out the explanations better.
i. E kwuru = It was said (no longer he/she/ it said)
ii. A bịara = People came (it was came is not English)
iii. O zuru = It was enough
iv. E buuru ya = He/She/It was carried
v. E jidere ya = He/She/It was caught

In summary, the singular and plural Igbo pronouns, which have been seen as the form of Igbo gender are:

Singular Plural
M, Mụ - I Anyị - We
Gị, I, Ị - You Unu - You
Ya, O, Ọ – He/She/It Ha - Them, they.
A, E, - It (passive) A, E, - It (passive)

4.3 The Use of negatives in Igbo language.

In English language, there are many prefixes that imply negation. Some of them are im- (as in imperfect), un- (as in uncalled for), dis- (as in disagree), etc. But in Igbo language, negation is formed with the use of the suffix -ghị. Using the listed English negation forms as examples, we have:
Imperfect = Ezughi oke – It is imperfect = O zughi oke
Uncalled for = Adịghị mkpa – His presence is uncalled for = Ịhụ ya anya adịghị mkpa.
Disagree = E kweghi – He disagreed = O kweghi ekwe.

4.4 Vowel Elision and Consonant Elision
Like in Latin language, the Igbo words are written according to how they are spelt. This leads to the fact that no alphabet is left out in writing and in pronunciation vise versa. However, in vowel elision, in the context where “na” follows a noun word that begins with a vowel, the “a” in the “na” is displaced by an apostrophe (that is “na” dịka mbuuzọ). Examples are n’ụzọ (on the road), n’ụtụtụ (in the morning), n’ime (inside), n’ụlọakwụwkọ (in the school).
In Igbo language the same word can be pronounced differently and spelt differently and consequently give different meanings. In Latin Language, the word that is spelt the same, is pronounced the same way e.g. Femina, nauta, omnes etc.

Again, in Igbo language, consonants do not end a word but can begin a word. However, there are exceptions to this. Examples are dum (every), Mahadum (university), ọdụm (lion). It should be noted that it was the influence of the colonial masters that made some common Igbo proper names to be ending with consonants, and have now come to be written as such. Eg. Okafor (instead of Okafọ), Nwankwor (instead of Nwankwọ), Udeh (instead of Ude), Ụbah (instead of Ụba) etc. The reason for this is that the o sound seems to be long, and lengthen nature of it makes the white man to add “r” alphabet in those names that end with the o alphabet, and this explanation also applies to their writing of words that end with the “e” alphabets.
Ewelu (2005:251) argued that only two words begin with consnants chi and di. This is not the case because apart from these, there are words like kpakpando (star), be (home), taa (today), and cauntless Igbo names that begin with consonants eg. Kwentọ, Kanene, Kelechi, Chibuzọ, Chinenye, Chiemerie, Chidiọgọ, Chịdịebere and so on.

5. Conclusion
The proper knowledge of Igbo morphology is very important for the study of Igbo language because without it, it will be very difficult to understand the rich nature of Igbo grammar. Although many linguists have delved and are delving into it now, but more effort is still needed. This paper is only a scratch of the demand that this branch of the language requires. And since there is still much room for improvement, both researchers and the government need to face the reality and research or embark on the research.

References
Aronoff, M. 1976. Word Formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press
Chomsky, N. 1057. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.
Emenanjo, E. N. 1978. Elements of Igbo Grammar. Ibadan: Oxford University Press
Kahrel, P. 1996. Aspect of Negation. Ph. D. Thesis: University of Amsterdam
Katamba, F. 1989. An Introduction to Phonology. London: Longman
Siegel, C. D. 1994. Topics in English Morphology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Internet sources
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/morphology

Dosad Blogs

APRASA 2016 Football Competition Set to Kick Off - DOSAD Commends APRASA for the Initiative

Agulu Priests, Religious, Aspirants and Seminarians Association (APRASA) is organizing a football competition for the youths of catholic parishes in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State. It will last from 6th to 13th August 2016.

The letter made available to Fides has it that the venue for all the matches will be in St. Mary’s field at Nwagu Agulu and it is expected that each player has to be a registered member of the parish youth, mercenaries are not allowed. Again, the list of the players must be signed by the Parish Priest or the Parish Youth Chaplain.

Priests Brotherhood Sports and Recreation Club – Achieving Healthy Lifestyle

Tuesday evenings are special at St Anthony Catholic Church Enugwu-ukwu and environs. As from half hour of three in the afternoon, there is a traffic build up. You can see them – young and old, tall and short, fat and thin, huge and pint, all alighting from their cars and lacing their boot and wears, heading to the football field and volleyball court. Among them are lawyers, lecturers, coaches, administrators, musicians, engineers, architects, name them. They are however bonded by two significant binding factors-Catholic Priesthood and Sports.

ShareThis
Newsletters

Select the newsletter(s) to which you want to subscribe or unsubscribe.

Poll
Which should be the National Language for Nigeria?
HAUSA?
0%
IGBO?
100%
YORUBA?
0%
ANY OTHER?
0%
Total votes: 2
Who's online
There are currently 0 users and 1 guest online.
Syndicate
Syndicate content

Copyright © 2010 Igboniile All right reserved.