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ỌRỤ SAYENSI ASỤSỤ N’ASỤSỤ -Rich. N. Ekegbo

Mmalite
Tupu e lebanyewe anya na Sayensi Asụsụ n’ebe asụsụ dị, ọ dị mkpa ibu ụzọ leba anya n’ihe bụ asụsụ. N’ịkọwa asụsụ n’aka nke ya, Ngoesi (1989:1) kọwara na, asụsụ bụ iji mkpụrụokwu nwegasịrị nghọta ndị e nwere ike ịsụ asụ, dee ede maọbụ gụọ agụ, mee ka a mata ebumnobi mmadụ.

Ebe sayensi bụ amụmamụ nke na-agbado ụkwụ na nnyochapụta tupu mkpebi, ma na-elekwasịkwa anya n’ihe a na-ahụ anya were aga n’ihe anaghị ahụ anya, Sayensi Asụsụ bụ amụmamụ nke na-agbaso sayensi iji were me nkọwa na mkpebi gbasara asụsụ.

A. ỌRỤ SAYENSI ASỤSỤ N’EBE ASỤSỤ DỊ
N’ịga n’ihu n’ilebanye anya n’ihe bụ Asụsụ, Sayensi, na Sayensi Asụsụ na nkenke, ọ dịmkpa ilebanye anya n’ihe bụ ọrụ sayensi asụsụ n’ebe asụsụ dị. Dịka nchọpụta siri gosi, ọ bụladị site n’ihe anyị kọwarala ugbua, sayensi asụsụ na-echekwa ma na-eme ka asụsụ zuo oke, ma tosikwa etosi. Yaa bụ ọrụ Sayensi Asụsụ bụ ga:

i) Ọ na-eme ka a ghọtawanye asụsụ nke ọma.
Nke a pụtara na Sayensi Asụsụ na-eleba anya n’ihe niile mewere
asụsụ, maọbụ ihe niile asụsụ nwere iji haziwanye ya bụ asụsụ.
N’ụzọ dị etu a, o nwere ike iwepu ewepu, maọbụ tinye etinye n’ihe
niile mewere asụsụ. Itinye ya n’ụdị ọzọ dị etu a, ọ na-emewanye
ka asụsụ dịwanye ire site n’iji aka ya nyochaa, yọchaa, ma
tụchasịa ihe niile dị n’ime asụsụ, etu onye o si nri si eleba anya
n’ihe niile o ji esi ihe ọ na-esi.
Na nghọta nke Ezikojiakụ (1989:6), Lingwisitiks bụ ngalaba amụmamụ na-eleba anya, nyochasịa ma bọkasịa asụsụ n’ịpa n’ịpa kwuo ihe gbasara nke ọbụla. Nke a gosiri na Lingwisitiks bụ ahụghị ebule ma sị elila dike n’ihe gbasara ịghasasị asụsụ na ikpokọkwa ya ka o were kawanye mma.

ii) Ọ na-enyere asụsụ aka n’ito eto.
Site n’ihe a kọwara na nke mbụ, Sayensi Asụsụ na-eme ka asụsụ na-eto site n’ileba anya na ya, ma na-ewepu ihe ndị nwere ike ịdọghachi ya azụ. Asụsụ ọ bụla nwere ụtọasụsụ, nke bụ ihe ndị ahụ mejupụtara ya bụ asụsụ, ma mekwaa ka asụsụ ọ bụla dị iche, nke ụfọdụ n’ime ha bụ ahịrịokwu, aha, mkpọaha, nnọchiaha, nkọwa, mbuuzọ, mgbochiume, ụdaụme, ụdaolu, njikọ, jenda, ngwaa, wdg; tinyekwara muudu, ngwaa transitiivu, nkwuwa, mmewe okwu wdg. dịka asụsụ ọ bụla siri nwe nke ya. ihe ndị a na ndị ọzọ bụ ihe Sayensi Asụsụ na-ejikọ aka n’ụtọasụsụ, were atụle asụsụ, iji nyere asụsụ aka n’ito eto mgbe o lebanyechara ha anya n’ihi na ọ bụ mgbanwo bụ uto.

iii) Ọ na-eme ka a ghọtawanye ụmụ irighiri ihe mejuputara asụsụ
Ihe ndị ahụ mejuputara asụsụ dị ka e si deputa ụfọdụ n’ọnụọgụgụ nke abụọ, bụ ihe ndị ahụ e kwesiri ịghọta na ịmụta maka ya bụ asụsụ. Ọ bụkwa mgbe mmadụ mụtara ya ka a na-asị na ọ mụtara ihe n’asụsụ ahụ. N’otu aka, ọ bụ ọrụ Sayensi Asụsụ iji nnyocha dị elu were lebanye anya na ụmụ irighiri ihe ndị ahụ iji weputachaa ihe mmụta dị omimi n’ime ha. N’ihi nke a ka Ezikeojiakụ (1989:6), ji kwukwa na, Lingwistiks bụ amụmamụ na-enye aka iji leba anya, nyochaa, yọchaa, bọkasịa ma jikọtakwa ihe dị mkpa n’asụsụ ndị mmadụ na-asụ, na nke ha na-ede.

iv) Sayensi Asụsụ na-enye ụfọdụ mkpebi
Ọ bụ ọrụ Sayensi Asụsụ, site n’ihe o nyochapụtara, ịdị na-enye mkpebi gbasara asụsụ ọ bụla. Mkpebi ahụ abụghị nke na asụsụ ezughi oke, maọbụ na asụsụ abụghị asụsụ, n’ihi na sayensi asụsụ na-ahụ asụsụ niile ka ihe zuru oke dị mkpa, ebe ha na-egboro ndị nwe ha mkpa. Kama ịhụ asụsụ ọ bụla ka ihe ezughi oke, ọ na-ahụ ya ka ihe a ga-eji nnyocha lebanye anya, nyekwara ya aka maka itozu oke. Nke a bụ makana ọ bụ site n’ụdị enyemaka a ka asụsụ ji etowanye.

v) Sayensi Asụsụ na-eji nghọta anabata asụsụ ọ bụla
Sayensi Asụsụ anaghị ajụ asụsụ ọ bụla ịnabata okwu mbite site n’asụsụ ibe ya. Nke a kara pụta ihe n’ebe asụsụ ndị ahụ a na-akpọ asụsụ mba ụwa dị. N’ịga n’ihu, asụsụ bekee, dịka asụsụ mba ụwa ndị ọzọ, na-anabata asụsụ mba ndị ọzọ, ma nke a emeghi ka Sayensi Asụsụ hụ ya ka ihe ezughi ezu. Kama Sayensi asụsụ na-ele anya ịhụ ka okwu mbite ndị ahụ asụsụ bitere siri daba adaba n’asụsụ bitere ha.

vi) Sayensi Asụsụ anaghị ele anya na asụsụ ọzọ were atụle asụsụ ọ bụla.
Sayensi Asụsụ anaghị ele anya n’asụsụ ọ bụla were atụle ibe ya, kama ọ na-ele asụsụ ọ bụla anya n’ogo nke ya, were eme mkpebi, were eweputa echiche ya maka asụsụ ahụ. Nke a mere o ji dị iche n’ụdị amụmamụ nke asụsụ okongwu, bụ nke na-eleba anya n’oyiyi na ndịiche dị n’otu asụsụ na ibe ya were eme mkpebi.

B. MMETỤTA SAYENSI ASỤSỤ N’EBE ASỤSỤ IGBO DỊ

1) Asụsụ Igbo na asụsụ ndị ọzọ ha nhatanha n’anya Sayensi Asụsụ.
Isi okwu a bụ makana asụsụ Igbo so na asụsụ ndị na-enwe nchekwawa nke Sayensi Asụsụ, nke anaghị anabata nkatọ nke ụfọdụ mmadụ na-eme asụsụ ụfọdụ, dịka ihe etozughi etozu, maọbụ etorughi etoru iji me ihe niile.

2) Asụsụ Igbo zuru oke.
Nghọta nke a si na nchekwawa nke Sayensi Asụsụ, abụghị naanị maka asụsụ Igbo, kamakwa maka asụsụ ndị ọzọ niile a na-eche na ha ezughi oke ka asụsụ dịka bekee, French maọbụ Latin. N’ezie, ezughi oke maọbụ izu oke bụ etu echiche ndị nwe asụsụ ọ bụla dị maka asụsụ ha. Mana asụsụ ọ bụla nwere ike ịkọwa ntọala, ọdịnala, na omenala ndị, bụ ihe a ga-ahụ ka ihe zuru oke metụta ndị nwe ya bụ asụsụ. Asụsụ Igbo na-eme nke a, ebe ọ na-enwe nchekwawa nke Sayensi Asụsụ. Naanị ihe asụsụ Igbo nwere ike ime bụ ịnabata mkpụrụokwu asụsụ ndị ọzọ, itowanye eto na ịdị na-aga n’ihu ka ihe e ji eme ihe oge niile, ka ndị mba ọzọ hụwa ya ka ihe zuru oke n’oge adịghị anya.

3) Ịhazi nzọ ịkọwapụta ụtọasụsụ Igbo
Amụmamụ Sayensi Asụsụ nyere aka ịkọwapụta ụtọasụsụ Igbo n’ụdị mkpụrụasụsụ, ụdaolu, mkpụrụụdasụsụ, ụdịdịahịrịokwu na nghọta asụsụ; ndị bụgasị ngalaba dị iche iche e ji akọwa ụtọasụsụ (Igbo). N’ihi nkebi ụtọasụsụ n’ogo ndị a, ọtụtụ nwere ike ịghọta, mụta, ma nwee ike kọwaa ihe ụfọdụ metụtara ụmụ irighiri ihe ndị dị n’ụtọasụsụ Igbo.

4) Sayensi Asụsụ na nnyocha ya
Ọzọ, site n’enyemaka Sayensi Asụsụ na ime nnyocha, na ịchọpụta nke doro anya maka asụsụ ọ bụla, ma jiri aka ya kpebie ka asụsụ ọ bụla sị dị n’onwe ya, asụsụ Igbo agbalahụla ọtụtụ iwu asụsụ okongwu na-eti site n’iji otu asụsụ tụnyere ibe ya.

5) Asụsụ Okongwu na-akpọ ihe aha n’ejighi nnyocha leba
anya.
Ụsọrọ nke isi okwu nke ise a agaraghị enyere asụsụ Igbo aka itowanye eto na ịdịwanye ire. Mana Sayensi Asụsụ ejirila usoro nnyocha gbanwoo ọnọdụ a bụ nke bụ ịsị na ihe bụ ihe, n’enweghi ike ịkọwa ihe kpatara ihe ahụ ji bụrụ ihe ahụ. Na nkọwa ya, Ezikeojinaka (1989:8) sị, iji ma atụ, ụfọdụ mkpụrụokwu e chere na ha bụ nkọwa abụghị ya dị ka ogologo, nkenke na mkpụmkpụ. Ha abụghị nkọwa n’ihi n’ọtụtụ ebe, ha na-arụ ọrụ mkpọaha karịa nke nkọwa. Iji mkpụrụokwu atọ a ma atụ ga-eme ka a ghọta na e nwere ọtụtụ mkpụrụokwu ndị ọzọ na-eme ka ha. Nke a kwesiri ime ka onye ọ bụla na-amụ ụtọasụsụ Igbo kpachapụ anya were mụmie mkpọaha na nkọwaaha amụmi.
Mmechi
Na mmechi, e kwesiri ịghọta na asụsụ dị ọtụtụ n’ụwa, nke asụsụ Igbo bụ otu n’ime ha. Ụfọdụ n’ime asụsụ ndị a niile, dịka asụsụ Igbo, nwere ike bụrụ ndị a na-ede ede, ebe ndị ọzọ nwere ike bụrụ ndị anaghị ede ede. Mana ha niile bụ ihe kwesiri ịnọ n’okpuru Sayensi Asụsụ, iji nweta ezi ọnọdụ ruru ha dịka asụsụ a na-asụ asụ.

Edemsibịa
Ezikeojiaku, P.A. (1989), Fọnọlọgịị na ụtọasụsụ Igbo, Lagos:
Macmillan Publishers.

Ngoesi M.C., (1989), Nchịkọta ihe Ọmụmụ nke Asụsụ Igbo,
Optimal press.

Nootu maka Sayensi Asụsụ (2008), nke G. Ọnwụdiwe nyere na class ndị ogo mmụta dị elu (PGDI).

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